population organization definition

A T distribution is a type of probability function that is appropriate for estimating population parameters for small sample sizes or unknown variances. Founded in 1944, the World Bank is the world's largest source of development assistance. A simple random sample is meant to be an unbiased representation of a group. Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning, an organization created to share Japan's experience in family planning and maternal and child health that works in 26 developing countries by means of community-based interventions. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). The Planned Parenthood Federation of America, an organization that provides a wide range of reproductive health services that complement those provided by governments. Populations can be contrasted with samples. Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning. It also deals with issues of migrants's health, with an emphasis on the needs of women. When similar organisms group together, they form the next level in the organization, a population. There are countervailing forces, however. . On the initiative of the U.S. Department of State, then concerned with postwar planning, these studies were extended to include Asia, resulting in influential reports on Japan and India. . Limiting Population Growth and the Ford Foundation Contribution. The IUSSP is an elective organization, supposedly for those who have distinguished themselves in the field although in practice no longer very restrictive. In 1946, ILO became the first specialized agency of the United Nations. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. Population research institutes have proven durable and attractive to several generations of scholars and students. Religious Traditions: F. Protestant Perspectives, Population Ethics: III. The pace of population ageing is much faster than in the past. These centers for demographic surveillance form a network, sharing expertise and software. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. . All this is facilitated by a permanent head office, located in Liège, Belgium, from 1969 to 1999, and transferred to Paris in the latter year. Since these individuals are of the same species, they usually occupy the same niche in the ecosystem with similar habits and habitats. Examples of populations can be the number of newborn babies in North America, the total number of tech startups in Asia, the average height of all CFA exam candidates in the world, the mean weight of U.S. taxpayers, and so on. A population can be defined by any number of characteristics within a group that statisticians use to draw conclusions about the subjects in a study. Statistics such as averages and standard deviations, when taken from populations, are referred to as population parameters. World Disaster Report 2000: Focus on Public Health. Population definition, the total number of persons inhabiting a country, city, or any district or area. Population health is improving the health of a defined population. Population health is an approach to health that aims to improve the health of the entire population and to reduce health inequities among population groups. It focuses on migratory movements caused by emergencies, including irregular migration and trafficking in humans, and on post-conflict interventions. Those policies are developed and implemented by specialized government agencies. WPC discussions led to the creation the following year of the International Union for the Scientific Investigation of Population Problems (IUSIPP). . 2000. United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA). See also: Bibliographic and Online Sources; Demography, History of; Journals, Population; Population Thought, Contemporary. Proceedings of the World Population Conference. Demography, as Samuel H. Preston pointed out in a 1997 article, has been the only social science to have a "secure foothold" at the NIH, a great advantage because "cost-conscious legislators continue to place medical research, and NIH in particular, near the top of their priority lists" (p.236). . A population can be vague or specific. Give before December 31st and your contribution will be matched.GIVE NOWWe’re Moving #50ForwardIn the next 50 years, PSI is committed to getting quality healthcare in the hands of every woman, man … Home Read More » The institute, which is located in Rostock, has particular strengths in aging, biological demography, mathematical demography, and European and Asian population studies. A true population health support organization (PHSO) is an ideal fit in this dynamically evolving delivery landscape. Criticism of collaboration with government programs and policy, lack of sympathy with the growing feminist movement, unequal cooperative arrangements with researchers in "underdeveloped countries," scant involvement of members of racial minorities in research at home, perceived obsession with maintenance of academic standards–these criticisms were aimed at research institutes and professional associations in many disciplines. The Hewlett Foundation emphasizes reproductive health. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). Guide to European Population Assistance: An OrientationGuide for Institutions in Developing Countries on Funding for Population and Reproductive Health. The council, based in New York, received a large grant from the Ford Foundation, followed by grants from other foundations, and from the late 1960s on it received funding from the U.S. Agency for International Development and aid agencies of other governments. Statistics. . Comité International de Cooperation dans les Recherches Nationales en Démographie. The United Nations Human Settlements Programme, UN-Habitat, formerly known as the UN Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS-Habitat), was established in 1978. This article provides an overview of international, national, governmental, and nongovernmental organizations, including foreign assistance agencies, that work in the field of population. engage in regular physical activity (60 minutes a day for children and 150 minutes spread through … It coordinates international efforts to eliminate or eradicate some infectious diseases. Its mission is to lead, strengthen, and support an expanded response to the epidemic that will prevent the spread of HIV; to provide care and support for those infected with the disease; to reduce the vulnerability of individuals and communities to HIV/AIDS; and to alleviate the socioeconomic and human impact of the epidemic. Most associations produce peer-reviewed journals and newsletters and organize conferences. Elements of Population Ethics: A. In 1987 its name (but not its acronym) was again changed, to the United Nations Population Fund. 2002. Most developing countries, even those with a large number of foreign residents and continued immigration, do not have explicit migration policies or specialized migration agencies. Most times, statisticians and researchers want to know the characteristics of every entity in a population, so as to draw the most precise conclusion possible. The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) was established in 1946 as a temporary body to provide emergency assistance to children in war-ravaged countries. . Family Health International. Some associations help give direction to research–notably the IUSSP, through its scientific committees and their workshops. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Reliable and comparable data on violence against women is essential for prevention and response efforts. A sample is a random selection of members of a population. The IPPF and its members are committed to promoting the rights of women and men to decide freely the number and spacing of their children. Family Health International, a U.S.-based organization that is active in 40 developing countries and attempts to improve reproductive health services worldwide through innovative health service delivery interventions, training, and information provision as well as through biomedical and social science research. UN-Habitat aims to promote the socially and environmentally sustainable development of human settlements and the attainment of adequate shelter for all. Organizations in developing countries tend to be modest in size and to deal with a single issue and often depend on foreign support. In the population field, as in other areas of learning, professional … 2003. Population health is taking responsibility for managing the overall health of a defined population and being accountable for the health outcomes of that defined population. United Nations Educational and Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries similar organizations appeared in much of Europe and the United States. NIA funds ten centers for economic and demographic research on aging, often at the same universities that house the NICHD centers. WHO has a program in the area of reproductive health, including family planning and safe motherhood, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV/AIDS. The population living within the administrative boundaries of a city, e.g., Washington, D.C. ... A linear ‘ribbon’ system of urban organization: cities of various sizes linked through transportation and economic Associations facilitate communications by publishing (or placing on the Web) information about members, including in the IUSSP's case (and befittingly as demographers) their exact dates of birth. Negative Population Growth, Inc. (NPG) is a national nonprofit membership organization. In 1967 the United Nations established a Trust Fund for Population Activities. Encyclopedias almanacs transcripts and maps. 2002. It became the IOM in 1989, when its constitution was modified to broaden its objectives and scope of operation. Hodgson, Dennis. Demographers also attended the International Statistical Congress from its inauguration in 1853 and belonged to the International Statistical Institute from its establishment in 1885. INVEST IN HER FUTUREBy making a contribution to PSI this December, you’re helping women and girls around the world tackle their greatest health challenges. Most trace their origin to Ford Foundation grants in the 1960s and 1970s. Institutes may also expand their roles as data producers, as demographers and other social scientists increasingly rely on complex longitudinal data sets. Religious Traditions: G. Hindu Perspectives, Population Ethics: III. The oldest, in Matlab in what is now Bangladesh, was originally a site for cholera vaccine trials conducted by the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (now the Centre for Health and Population Research), which has had many demographers on its staff or as visiting scholars. IUSIPP published Population from 1932 to 1939. Sub-Saharan Africa has had several centers that have been important providers of training for statistical services but has had few regional research centers. For instance, a population can change over time due to several events like births, mortality, and migration of organisms. Migrant-receiving countries such as the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand have explicit policies that regulate the inflow of migrants. NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL AGENCIES    Alphonse L. MacDonald, PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS    John C. Caldwell. The amount by which the world's population is expected to grow by the middle of the 21st century. A population, in statistics and other areas of mathematics, is a discrete group of people, animals or things that can be identified by at least one common characteristic for the purposes of data collection and analysis. One research group may include senior demographers with their own individual research grants from NIH, research assistants with stipends paid through foundation postdoctoral fellowships, and visiting scholars whose expenses are paid with NIH center funds, all of whom are supported by administrative staff whose salaries typically are paid from general university funds. Acad Manage Rev 10(4):750–757 Google Scholar Ford MR, Andersson FO (2016) Determinants of organizational failure in the milwaukee school voucher program. 1999. Many government programs also base their funds on demographic patterns. . Jean-Claude Chasteland and Louis Roussel. Religious Traditions: H. Buddhist Perspectives, Population Ethics: III. The immediate postwar period also saw the establishment of a department of demography at the Australian National University. 2002. Elements of Population Ethics: C. History of Population Theories. In America, Britain, France, Germany, Italy, and elsewhere in Europe these committees, numbering 14 in all and consisting largely of delegates to the WPC, were set up between 1928 and the first IUSIPP Conference in Rome in 1931. Population Health Management is the aggregation of patient data across multiple health information technology resources, the analysis of that data into a single, actionable patient record, and the actions through which care providers can improve both clinical and financial outcomes. 2003. One of Rockefeller's motives was frustration at the reluctance of large foundations to work directly on population issues because of controversy surrounding the ethics of contraception and the stigma of demography's past connection with eugenics. One of its specialist committees deals exclusively with migration, refugees, and demography. The World Health Organization's (WHO) new World Standard Population, described in Discussion Paper 31: Age Standardization of Rates: A New WHO Standard (PDF) , was added to SEER*Stat in April 2013.Because the WHO population proportions for each age group do not sum to 100 percent, we adjusted the proportions to add precision so they sum to a round number. Details of UN publications from each agency can be found at their respective Web sites or through POPIN. The Parliamentary Assembly, which consists of representatives of the national parliaments, considers European and international problems and proposes solutions. United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). Planned Parenthood Federation of America. Particularly interesting is the growth of Internet networks such as H-Demog for historical demographers, which is funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities. The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, UNAIDS, is the leading coordinator of worldwide action against HIV/AIDS. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. Most businesses are limited-liability companies. They also coordinate regional activities dealing with data collection and research relating to population matters. United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC). London: Edward Arnold. Ducasse-Rogier, Marianne. Grebenik, Eugene. For many reasons–the need to create and manage large data sets, the value of collaborative projects covering broad geographic areas, and the need to borrow theories and methods from other disciplines–the institutional setting has always been important to population studies. Population can also be defined more specifically, such as the number of newborn babies in North America with brown eyes, the number of startups in Asia that failed in less than three years, the average height of all female CFA exam candidates, mean weight of all U.S. taxpayers over 30 years of age, among others. Bureau of the Census. The International Statistical Yearbook, starting with the year 1926, included data on population, births, deaths, growth, age structure, occupational groups, and unemployment. . Ford Foundation grants went to the Universities of Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Chicago in the early 1960s. The United Nations has five regional commissions, which as part of their activities deal with population matters. In Europe, early research institutions were created with public funding. They are: the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA); the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP); the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE); the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC); and the Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA). Before World War II, there were few specialized institutions for research and training in demography, although small research groups often coalesced in population units of government statistical bureaus or around professorial posts in universities. 2001. The National Center for Health Statistics (NHCS), which is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of the Department of Health and Human Services, is the principal federal health and vital statistics agency. Universities are conservative institutions. Developing systems for providing long-term care. Finally, research centers may still be needed as the nurturers of intellectual companionship. It is guided by the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which seeks to establish children's rights as enduring ethical principles and to support international standards of behavior toward children. The agency compiles a variety of health-and mortality-related statistics and conducts research on a broad range of health issues. A biotic community is a higher ecological category next to population. . "Demographic Research in Britain, 1936–1986." As the field expanded after World War II, more national societies, with memberships mostly below 500, came into existence: in Japan in 1948; in West Germany in 1953; in several countries in Latin America in the 1960s; in France, Britain (the British Society for Population Studies), India, and Pakistan in the 1970s; and in Australia, New Zealand, China, and Thailand in the early 1980s. Winslow, founder of the Yale Department of Public Health, as: “the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life, and … The role of population associations is generally similar to that of other learned bodies. IUSSP, almost uniquely, does not have a journal, but for many years helped support and distribute Population Studies (Britain), Population (France), Population Index (USA), and Genus (Italy). The Population Information Network, POPIN, established in 1979 and maintained by the United Nations Population Division, makes population information from all UN sources easily available to the international community. 2002. FAO compiles extensive international statistics relating to the rural environment, food production, and population. Definition The study of dynamic changes within organizations. Encyclopedia of Population. Similar friction arose at the second conference in Berlin in 1935. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Some award prizes, as IUSSP has done annually since 1991 and PAA for a longer period. Some of its members provide reproductive health services, with an emphasis on the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS. Population health management requires both analysis and action. Although it is not a population organization, since 1995 the IFRC has paid more attention to public health issues, including reproductive health. The two most significant are the UN's Regional Institute for Population Studies at the University of Ghana and the Institut de formation et de recherche démographiques at the University of Yaounde II, Cameroon. Lunde, Anders S., Frank W. Notestein, and Frank Lorimer. 2002. However, populations contain genetic variation within themselves, and not all individuals are equally able to survive and reproduce.Population… https://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/population-organizations, "Population Organizations IUSSP has been particularly active in the latter area. 2002. In developing countries, national governments are responsible for the formulation, implementation, and monitoring of population and development policies. In undertaking its development assistance, the Bank collects an extensive range of demographic and related statistics and conducts numerous studies relating to population and development issues. Geneva: International Organization for Migration. UNESCO. WHO also works to prevent and control major chronic non-communicable diseases that strike people later in their lives. UNFPA. Ever since, INED has maintained a prominent role as a major center of demographic research. "The Social Construction of Population Science: An Intellectual, Institutional, and Political History of Twentieth-Century Demography." Reliable and timely population statistics are needed for the formulation, monitoring, and evaluation of population policies. In the past, most commissions had population divisions, but these have merged with other offices. Other surveillance sites, such as the British Medical Research Council site in Gambia, research sites in West Africa funded by the French government through the Institut de recherche pour le Développement, and the Agincourt site in South Africa, also began as field stations for vaccine trials or community health research. But some potentially important changes are discernible. United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). Two recently established centers, set up with foundation funding, are the African Population and Health Research Center in Nairobi, Kenya, and the Africa Centre for Health and Population Research in Durban, South Africa. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) was founded in 1945 with a mandate to raise levels of nutrition and standards of living, to improve agricultural productivity, and to improve the conditions of rural populations. . They also promote sexual and reproductive health. 2002. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Data Transformation. . 2003 . Among international associations the IUSSP is distinctive in having a substantial number of its members coming from developing countries and a large proportion of its conference proceedings and research workshops being focused on these countries. However, as other refugee crises emerged around the globe, UNHCR's mandate was extended and has continued to be extended every five years. International Labour Organization (ILO). It has three main program areas: reproductive health, including family planning and sexual health; population and development strategies; and advocacy in support of its goals. In 1953 the General Assembly placed the Fund on a permanent footing and charged it with assisting in the development of permanent child health and welfare services, particularly in developing countries. Donor countries and organizations provide foreign assistance through a special unit in the ministry of foreign affairs or an independent technical assistance agency. Population definition is - the whole number of people or inhabitants in a country or region. NIH grants are made on a highly competitive basis, with committees of non-government scientists playing a crucial role in selection. United States Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration of the Department of State. Ford Foundation. Maas, Jörg, and Mirja Rothschädl. . There is often confusion around what is meant by the term “population health.” AHA and the Association for Community Health Improvement offer a definition of the term as well as the goals and processes that hospitals should consider as they implement population health strategies. Europe is the principal exception. When similar organisms group together, they form the next level in the organization, a population. . In addition, a number of other divisions within DESA have work programs that touch upon aspects of population. Comparative Studies in Society and History 38: 26–66. The resolutions adopted by the assembly provide guidance to the member states and have considerable influence on national policies. UNHCR promotes international refugee agreements and monitors government compliance with international refugee law. Carrying capacity i…, Demography is the scientific study of the size, composition, and distribution of human populations, and their changes resulting from fertility, morta…, At one time the term geopolitics referred almost exclusively to the determining effects of global location and environmental characteristics (climate…, Population Genetics and the Problem of Diversity, Population Ethics: III. Organizations must be able to prioritize and integrate a multitude of internal … In the early years of the Royal Society there was a marked interest in population promoted by such members as John Graunt, William Petty, and Edmund Halley. In some cases these are ministries; in other cases they are national population boards or commissions that function as independent units or are attached to a ministry or planning authority. Funding for OPR came from the Milbank Memorial Fund and the Scripps Foundation for Research in Population Problems, and later from the Rockefeller Foundation. 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